Richard Kraemer is a Fellow of FPRI’s Eurasia Program and the senior program officer for Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey at the National Endowment for Democracy. Previously, he oversaw projects in the aforementioned countries and the Levant at the Center for International Private Enterprise. Earlier, he further taught and researched at the Jagellonian University in Poland. He is also an affiliated expert of the Public International Law and Policy Group, having advised the governments of Georgia and Montenegro. He has a particular interest in exertion of “soft power” and in the economic drivers of democratization. He holds a BA from William and Mary and a JD from American University.