Footnotes are essays designed in particular for teachers and students and are often drawn from the lectures at our nationally recognized Butcher History Institute for Teachers.


Advances in Medicine During Wars

February 23, 2018 · Raymond E. Tobey

Besides the well-known technical advances that have occurred during major wars of the past 150 years, each one also has produced significant advances in medicine. Some of these advances were completely innovative because of circumstances that occur primarily during ...

Read More

The Post-Soviet Wars: Part II

December 19, 2017 · Col. Robert E. Hamilton

The previous article, The Post-Soviet Wars: Part I, advanced a causal explanation for the post-Soviet wars, the wars that broke out in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine during and after the collapse of the Soviet Union. To ...

Read More

The Post-Soviet Wars: Part I

December 18, 2017 · Col. Robert E. Hamilton

Russia’s intervention in Georgia in 2008 and, more recently, in Ukraine awaked many in the West to a category of wars they had assumed to be resolved and, in any case, of little consequence to Western security: the post-Soviet ...

Read More

Does Democracy Matter? The United States and Global Democracy Support: A Study Guide for the College Classroom

July 19, 2017 · Agnieszka Marczyk

Confidence in the future of democracy has been shaken by the authoritarian resurgence of the past decade, and some now argue that it is not realistic for the U.S. to continue to champion democracy abroad. Does Democracy Matter? provides ...

Read More

A Match is Nothing Without a Fuse; A Fuse is Nothing Without a Bomb: Starting Two Wars, 1898-1899

May 11, 2017 · David Silbey

The Spanish-American War is a relatively forgotten war in American history. The most remembered wars—the Revolution, the Civil War, World War II, Vietnam—absorb much of our attention and leave smaller wars, even “a splendid little war” in the shade. ...

Read More

Why the United States Went to War in Vietnam

April 28, 2017 · Heather Stur

Why did the U.S. go to war in Vietnam? This is a question historians continue to debate. One of the main reasons it remains a source of argument is that it is difficult to say when the U.S. war ...

Read More

Why Do Some Nations Prosper? The Case of North and South Korea

April 26, 2017 · Lucien Ellington, Tawni Hunt Ferrarini

Economists have debated for years why it is that some nations prosper while others do not. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea, DPRK) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea, ROK), for example, started out as poor ...

Read More

A Framework for Ethical Decision Making

April 6, 2017 · Lawrence Husick

In April 2015, the Foreign Policy Research Institute presented its Madeleine and W.W. Keen Butcher History Institute on Ethical Dilemmas in American Warfare hosted by the First Division Museum at Cantigny, Wheaton, IL. Covering such topics as the Dilemmas ...

Read More

The Causes of the War of 1812

March 31, 2017 · Paul J. Springer

As the foremost theorist of war, Carl von Clausewitz, once noted, “Everything is very simple in war, but the simplest thing is difficult.” For the historian, the same can be said regarding any effort to determine the primary ...

Read More

Between Piety and Patriotism: Shariʿa and The American Way of Life

March 27, 2017 · Aaron Rock-Singer

In May 2016, a row broke out at the Metropolitan Recreation Center in Williamsburg, New York following an anonymous complaint regarding its summer schedule. The Center had long offered gender-segregated swimming hours for Williamsburg residents who, for religious reasons, ...

Read More