“We committed a boner with regard to Iraq and our close friendship with Iraq,” Ronald Reagan explained during the 1991 Gulf War. George Bush said, “Well, we tried the peaceful route. We tried working with [Saddam Hussein] and changing [him] through contact . . . The lesson is clear in this case – that didn’t work.“ Yet even now, two years after the Gulf War, the “lessons” have yet to be learned. Saddam’s astonishing, tenaciously held ambitions have yet to be adequately recognized, while his remarkable talent for deception remains underestimated.