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Western efforts to promote Russian economic growth and technological modernization presuppose that such policies will help strengthen civilian reformers. But market-oriented reformers are not the only people-who see advanced technology as critical to their future. Executives in the military industry believe that they can capitalize on their legacy of leadership in both military and civilian technologies to marshal Russia’s resources for the next stage of economic development. Important elements in the uniformed military, moreover, believe that Russia must remain technologically competitive with the Western powers, in both military and dual-use (civilian/military) technologies. If these two groups reinforce each other, technological modernization could lead to a gradual but significant remilitarization of Russia.