Arms control has been marginalized over the past several administrations. Even its most dedicated backers have failed to win support for it in key segments of American political life. It has also lost its way conceptually. Whether it was a case of politics undermining arms control or the American political system rejecting a flawed form of it, clearly a fundamental rethinking and redesign of arms control is needed. Instead of trying to make the world over through multilateral treaties as in the 1990s, we should return to arms control’s 1960s roots and again concentrate on lowering the chance of war and reducing the damage if war occurs anyway.