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A nation must think before it acts.
The nature of warfare has changed dramatically in the last few years and is certain to continue changing in the coming years. Adversaries are less likely to use traditional military strikes. Rather, they are more likely to compete in the so-called “Gray Zone.” The term refers to an activity that is coercive and aggressive in nature, but deliberately is designed to remain below the threshold of conventional military conflict. The cyber domain is a major arena in this gray zone. This article examines how Islamic Republic of Iran and its regional adversaries (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of Israel) have developed and utilized cyber warfare capabilities.