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A nation must think before it acts.
Gerald Robbins, Senior Fellow at FPRI, specializes in analyzing Turkey, the Caucasus region, and Central Asia. He was awarded a Fulbright-Hayes fellowship to study rural-urban migration at Bosphorus University, Istanbul, and holds an M.A. in Near Eastern Studies from New York University. Robbins has used his Turkish language skills to report from Ankara and Istanbul for The Weekly Standard, the Asian Wall Street Journal Weekly and the Washington Times. He served as Program Director for Freedom House in Baku, Azerbaijan during the mid 1990’s, where he managed post-Soviet political and economic programs. Mr. Robbins frequently lectures at universities and foreign policy institutes. He authored Azerbaijan as part of Mason Crest/FPRI’s “The Growth and Influence of Islam” series, designed for middle and high school students. His current focus is studying European efforts to further integrate its growing Muslim and non-EU communities.
This essay is based on a lecture for a two-day History Institute for Teachers sponsored by FPRI’s Wachman Center in cooperation with the American Institute for History Education on U.S. Foreign Policy and the Modern Middle East.