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A nation must think before it acts.
This talk outlined how Muslims encountered Europe from the 7th century onwards. One focus was on early encounters in Spain. A second theme dealt with Muslim-European/Christian encounters in the Mediterranean world from the Middle Ages to the early modern period. A last focus was on the modern period, the 19th and 20th century, where both intellectual and social contacts multiplied.
This talk was given the May 2, 2015 Teachers’ Workshop on Islam in the West, co-sponsored by Princeton University’s Program in Near Eastern Studies and the Foreign Policy Research Institute.