Footnotes are essays designed in particular for teachers and students and are often drawn from the lectures at our nationally recognized Butcher History Institute for Teachers.

The Causes of the War of 1812

Between Piety and Patriotism: Shariʿa and The American Way of Life

In May 2016, a row broke out at the Metropolitan Recreation Center in Williamsburg, New York following an anonymous complaint regarding its summer schedule. The Center had long offered gender-segregated swimming hours for Williamsburg residents who, for religious reasons,...

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Teaching the Cold War: Economics, Ideology, and Morality

A better understanding of the Cold War fosters insights into the incentive structures of socialism in its “democratic” forms as well as some understanding into its seemingly eternal appeal to large portions of the population. Students who systematically study...

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The Great War’s Impact on American Foreign Policy and Civic Religion

What happened in 1898 was accidental, but only in the sense that if you roll a die over and over again, it will turn up six sooner or later. That is, the tipping point was sure to come...

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Religion and Secularism in the Middle East: A Primer

Religious Minorities in the Modern Middle East

Identity in the Pre-Modern Middle East

Post-Colonial States and the Struggle for Identity in the Middle East since World War Two

Islam and Islamism: A Primer for Teachers and Students

Civil Liberties vs. State Security in Historical Perspective