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A nation must think before it acts.
Technological advances have altered the character of war throughout history. And while this is true of projectiles and armor, the spy is an outlier. The human element of intelligence collection, commonly referred to as spies or espionage, is a unique intelligence discipline. Unlike calibrated instruments that collect images or radio frequencies, Human Intelligence (HUMINT) allows for the collection of information inaccessible through other means. Spies are not without shortcomings. Since the creation of the world’s second oldest profession, how to command and control military spies has vexed commanders and historians alike. This is especially true for those who do not offer immediate value to a theater or tactical commander. Spies who seek strategic intelligence over operational intelligence are especially difficult to command, direct, and integrate into military operations.