Baltic Sea

Latvian Elections: Visions of a Fractured Saeima

Explore our guide to Latvian Parliamentary Party Platforms The 19 parties campaigning in the October 1 Latvian Saeima (parliament) elections are fated to experience interesting times. The vote occurs amidst lingering COVID-19 pandemic worries and Russia’s ongoing war in...

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Latvian Parliamentary Elections: Party Platform Guide

Latvia will hold parliamentary elections on October 1 to elect the members of 14th Saeima. Citizens are represented by a 100-member unicameral parliament to which members are elected by proportional representation for four-year terms. To enter the Saeima, parties...

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Good and Bad Neighbors: Perceptions in Latvian Society

Enmity and amity between countries is primarily defined by state institutions. Perceptions of societies in this regard are more obscure. They are influenced by a range of factors and actors. State institutions have influence on public opinion and vice...

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Watching the War on Russian Television

Those watching Russian television to follow the war in Ukraine live in an alternative reality. Commentators on state-owned Russian television news stations have spread the falsehood that Ukraine is staging fake attacks on their own cities to make it look...

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From the Migrant Crisis to Aggression in Ukraine: Belarus is Still on the Baltic Agenda

As Russia’s second invasion of Ukraine enters its fifth month, a significant date has recently passed in another country — Belarus. May 23 marked one year since Belarusian authorities hijacked a commercial Ryanair flight transporting passengers, including Belarusian opposition figure Roman...

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Two Less Obvious Lessons for Baltic Defense from Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has reaffirmed NATO’s purpose and the importance of collective defense. It has also pushed defense of the Baltic states back into the alliance’s limelight. The key lesson so far has been that more military power...

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Does ‘Zeitenwende’ Represent a Flash in the Pan or Renewal for the German Military?

For decades, Germany pursued close economic and political ties with Russia. It did so because German political and strategic leaders thought consistent engagement would result in geopolitical stability for Europe. They also thought it would lead to the eventual...

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Russia’s Use of Cyberattacks: Lessons from the Second Ukraine War

Russia, probably more than any other leading power, launches cyberattacks against other countries as a matter of routine. Sometimes, Russian cyberattacks accompany military action, as in the current war in Ukraine. At other times, Moscow uses cyberattacks to disrupt...

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The Baltic Road to Energy Independence from Russia Is Nearing Completion

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania regained their independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Reaching energy independence—i.e., disentanglement from Russia’s energy infrastructure and market—will have taken more than three additional decades. Even after all three countries joined the European Union...

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Baltic Sea Mining as an Extension of the Russian Gray Zone

Editor’s note: Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and renewed interest on the part of both Finland and Sweden to consider formal membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has brought new scrutiny to security threats in the Baltic Sea basin....

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