Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Mining as an Extension of the Russian Gray Zone

Editor’s note: Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and renewed interest on the part of both Finland and Sweden to consider formal membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has brought new scrutiny to security threats in the Baltic Sea basin....

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Fear, Solidarity, and Calls for Further Action in the Baltics as Russia Invades Ukraine

For Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the Russian invasion of Ukraine is all too familiar. All three Baltic countries were occupied in 1940 by the legal predecessor of the Russian Federation and were forced to live almost half a century...

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Latvia’s First Response to Russia’s War in Ukraine

The shock wave of the Russian attack against Ukraine is sensed worldwide, yet the closer one stands to the epicenter of tragedy, the stronger one feels the trembling of the ground. Riga, the capital of Latvia, is situated less...

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Understanding Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine

Introduction  On February 24, 2022 Russia began its invasion of Ukraine.  In times of crisis, balanced, in-depth analysis and trusted expertise is paramount. The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) remains committed in its mission to provide expert analysis to...

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Lithuania’s Cabinet Crisis: The Šimonytė Government’s Security Lesson for the West

In a time of democratic rollback and continued populist upswings, the European Union and United States increasingly advocate for coordination among members of the self-styled “international rules-based order.” This unity faces serious institutional challenges, especially visible at Europe’s edge...

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Lithuania Fever in Taiwan: Can China Break It?

What do rum, milk, beer, and chocolate all have in common? Other than a fun night and an upset stomach, they all are recent purchases that have found their way from the Baltic country of Lithuania to Taiwan. The...

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Russia’s Escalation Management and a Baltic Nuclear-Weapon Free Zone

Access the Winter 2022 issue of Orbis here. Abstract This article examines the idea of a Baltic Nuclear-Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ) in the context of the Russian Federation’s deterrence and escalation management theories, largely as enunciated by Russian military theorists....

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Afghanistan Was a Turbulent NATO Proving Ground for the Baltic States

It is sometimes said that when Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined NATO in 2004 each still harbored some lingering regret that they were not joining the NATO of 1949 — an alliance with a resolute and single-track focus to deter...

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Crowded Pond: NATO and Russian Maritime Power in the Baltic Sea

NATO has wrestled with how to defend its Baltic member states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania ever since their accession to the Alliance in 2004. All three militarily weak countries sit uncomfortably close to NATO’s main adversary, Russia. Making...

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Baltic Perspectives on U.S. and Transatlantic Nuclear Negotiations with Russia

The US administration under President Joe Biden has been looking to initiate a new round of negotiations with Russia on reducing non-strategic nuclear warheads (NSNW). However, Russia’s willingness to engage remains uncertain, and such negotiations have the potential to...

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