Foreign Policy Research Institute A Nation Must Think Before it Acts Chapter 21: World War II: The Great Masquerade

Chapter 21: World War II: The Great Masquerade

The Tragedy of U.S. Foreign Policy:

How America’s Civil Religion Betrayed the National Interest


McDougall Book Jacket

The original draft of this book contained 172 pages of endnotes, which had to be shed in the name of economy. Thanks to the Internet, readers can access them here. Unfortunately, of course, the author had to substitute page and paragraph numbers for the original superscripts in the text, but in most cases it should be clear which sentences in a given paragraph match up with which sources.

Paragraphs appearing in their entirety on a single page are identified by the page number (e.g., p. 122). Paragraphs divided between two pages are identified by those pages (e.g., pp. 92-93). Paragraphs that share a page with another complete paragraph are identified by the page number and paragraph number (e.g., p. 103, ¶ 1).





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Chapter 21: World War II: The Great Masquerade:

212: Warren F. Kimball, The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, N.J. Princeton University, 1991), p. 7.

212-13: James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution: What Is Happening in the World (New York: John Day, 1941).

213: Maury Klein, A Call to Arms: Mobilizing America for World War II (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013), pp. 355-76 (quote p. 372); Arthur Herman, Freedom’s Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II (New York: Random House, 2012), pp. 192-208; Thomas J. Fleming, The New Dealers War: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the War within World War II (New York: Basic Books, 2001), pp. 122-34.

213-14: Alan S. Milward, War, Economy, and Society 1939-1945 (Berkeley: University of California, 1977), pp. 63-74. See also Paul A. C. Koistinen, Arsenal of World War II: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1940-1945 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004); and Paul Kennedy, Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers Who Turned The Tide in the Second World War (New York: Random House, 2012). Hopkins quote in Fleming, The New Dealers’ War, p. 86.

214: Francis L. Loewenheim et al., eds., Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1975). Churchill’s passionate belief in the unity of interest and purpose between the United States and British Empire was evident in his History of the English Speaking Peoples published in 1956, but first composed from 1936 to 1939. On Anglo-American rivalry: Basil Collier, The Lion and the Eagle: British and Anglo-American Strategy, 1900-1950 (London: MacDonald, 1972); Mark A. Stoler, Allies in War: Britain and America against the Axis Powers, 1940-1945 (London: Hodder Arnold, 2005); Randall Bennett Woods, A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, 1941-1946 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1990).

215: Roosevelt State of the Union Address:

215-16: W. Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay 1941-1945: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire (New York: Oxford University, 1986), especially pp. 3-26, 154-55; Warren F. Kimball, ed., Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence, 3 vols. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 1984), I: 446-47; Wendell L. Willkie, One World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1943), p. 185.

216: On U.S. ambitions in Asia: Christopher Thorne, Allies of a Kind: The United States, Britain, and the War Against Japan, 1941-1945 (New York: Oxford University, 1979), Pearl Buck quote, p. 215; Christopher Thorne, The Issue of War: States, Societies, and the Far Eastern Conflict of 1941-1945 (New York: Oxford University, 1985), quotes pp. 197-98, 205.

216-17: Christopher Layne, The Peace of Illusions: American Grand Strategy from 1940 to the Present (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 2006), pp. 38-50 (Hull quote, p. 42); Stewart Patrick, Best Laid Plans: The Origins of American Multilateralism and the Dawn of the Cold War (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009), pp. 41-71.

217: In The Century of the Common Man (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1943), a compilation of Wallace’s speeches, he said three philosophies contended for the world’s soul: the fascist which claimed might makes right, the Marxian which said class conflict is inevitable, and the democratic Christian one which boldly asserted that “peace is inevitable, that all men are brothers, and that God is their Father” (p. 73). See also John Morton Blum, ed., The Price of Vision: The Diary of Henry A. Wallace, 1942-1946 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973), pp. 635-40; Fleming, The New Dealers’ War, pp. 122-24.

217-18: Heather A. Warren, Theologians of a New World Order: Reinhold Niebuhr and the Christian Realists 1920-1948 (New York: Oxford University, 1997), pp. 94-115 (quote p. 101). They had supported the 1939 bill proposed by Senator Robert F. Wagner (D., N.Y.) and Representative Edith Rogers (R., Mass.) to admit 20,000 Jewish children from Nazi Europe.

218: Alan Brinkley, The Publisher: Henry Luce and his American Century (New York: Knopf, 2010), pp. 310-11, reports that the Republican Luce bought into Roosevelt’s war aims, but shared his candid opinions, which he called “TIME’s Fourteen Points,” in a letter to Clare Booth Luce. He was pro-UN, pro-China, pro-Indian independence, pro-Negro civil rights, pro-Republican Party, pro-air power, pro-free enterprise, pro-collective bargaining, pro-Henry Kaiser, pro-art, pro-Free French, but anti-Nazi Germany, anti-Imperial Japan, and anti-FDR. A copy of the “Six Pillars” was sent to every Protestant chaplain in the armed forces and an 85 page study guide to all the mainline congregations in the United States.  On Dulles’ wartime activities see also Mark G. Toulouse, The Transformation of John Foster Dulles (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University, 1985), pp. 55-77; Henry P. Van Dusen, ed., The Spiritual Legacy of John Foster Dulles: Selections from his Articles and Addresses (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), pp. 139-50; and Anthony Clark Arend, Pursuing a Just and Durable Peace: John Foster Dulles and International Organization (Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1988)

218-19: Susan Schulten, “World War II Led to Revolution in Cartography,” New Republic (May 20, 2014):

219: Alan K. Henrikson, “FDR and the ‘World-Wide Arena,” in David B. Woolner, Warren F. Kimball, and David Reynolds, eds., FDR’s World: War, Peace, and Legacies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 35-61 (quotes, pp. 44-46, 61); Patrick, Best Laid Plans, pp. 60-71; Robert Divine, Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America during World War II (New York: Atheneum, 1967); Colin Dueck, Hard Line: The Republican Party and U.S. Foreign Policy Since World War II (Princeton, 2010), pp 64-65 (Mackinac quote).

219-20: It seemed he was trying to fit the “square peg of the Four Policemen approach into the round hole of the Atlantic Charter”: Frank Costigliola, Roosevelt’s Lost Alliances: How Personal Politics Helped Start the Cold War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 2012), p 184.

220: Charles W. Sharpe., Jr., “The Origins of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration” (PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2012).

221: Patrick, Best Laid Plans, pp. 141-71 (quote p. 171). In the event the ITO never got born, but was replaced by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1948. On Kindleberger’s role see Eric Helleiner, Forgotten Foundations of Bretton Woods: International Development and the Making of the Postwar Order (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 2014), p. 126.

221-22: Elizabeth Borgwardt, A New Deal for the World: America’s Vision for Human Rights (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 2005), pp. 88-140 (Baruch quote p. 196); John Morton Blum, ed., From the Morgenthau Diaries, vol. 3, Years of War, 1941-1945 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), pp. 228-29. See also Michael Adas, Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and America’s Civilizing Mission (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 2006), Lilienthal quote, p. 185; Wendy Wall, Inventing the “American Way”: The Politics of Consensus from the New Deal to the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Oxford University, 2008); David Ekbladh, The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order (Princeton, 2010); Victoria de Grazia, Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance through Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 2005).

222: Randall B. Woods, “FDR and the New Economic Order,” in David B. Woolner, Warren F. Kimball, and David Reynolds, eds., FDR’s World: War, Peace, and Legacies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 175-91, quote p. 181..

222-23: Humphrey Carpenter, ed., The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981), p. 65.


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