Russia

Compromise or Double Down: U.S.-Turkey Relations after CAATSA Sanctions

On December 14, the Trump administration sanctioned Turkey’s Presidency of Defense Industry (SSB), along with key individuals involved in the purchase of the Russian-made S-400 air and missile defense system....

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Russian Encroachment in the Baltics: The Role of Russian Media and Military

Sowing discontent and disruption is a tactic that the West has accustomed itself to when dealing with the Kremlin. The Baltic states are in a unique position in the face of these threats. Estonia and Latvia, specifically, have significant...

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How Belarus’ Soviet Past Led to its Modern-Day IT Success

Following a February 2020 visit to Minsk, an inspired Secretary of State Mike Pompeo tweeted his optimism regarding the “extraordinary growth potential” of Belarus’ Hi-Tech Park (HTP). A clearly impressed Pompeo was surprised to learn of the IT sector’s...

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Why Turkey Intervened in Libya

Through a historical analysis of Turkey’s military intervention in Libya, this essay identifies the various motivations, reasonings, and threat perceptions underlying Ankara’s current Libya strategy. ...

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Economic Interests, Political Conflicts, and External Interferences: The Complex Interlocking of the Libyan Crisis

In the last days of September 2020, Libya’s oil industry seemed to be on the verge of restarting its production after Gen. Khalifa Haftar announced the reopening of the oil fields and terminals that he had occupied and closed...

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Russia Now has a Position in Libya. What Next?

The Russian state-affiliated private military company known as the Wagner Group has proven adept at leveraging instability or weak institutions to further Russian influence abroad. Throughout 2020, the Russian Federation and Wagner have worked to support and enable Khalifa...

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A Plan to End the War in Syria: Competing with Russia in the Levant

The United States has an interest in allowing the Russian Federation to “win” an outright victory in Syria, so long as it secures from Moscow an agreement that is favorable to the Syrian Kurds, builds in negative consequences for...

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The Realist Victory in Nagorno-Karabakh

Armenia’s accession to a Russian-mediated settlement with Azerbaijan over their long-running conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, known as Artsakh to Armenians, on November 10 marks a major, perhaps irreversible, loss for Yerevan. But it is not just Armenian forces who stand...

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In Search of the Biden Doctrine

Every election season, commentators search for the Holy Grail of American foreign policy, the presidential doctrine, or a leader’s defining set of diplomatic beliefs. The George W. Bush doctrine was to hunt down terrorists and spread democracy, if necessary,...

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Georgia’s Parliamentary Elections and the Problem of Oligarchic Rule

On October 31, Georgian voters will head to the polls to elect a new parliament. The election is seen as a litmus test of legitimacy for the ruling Georgian Dream Party (GD) and as a referendum on party leader...

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